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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

“It’s horrible,” he said. “Whenever I see someone with a gun, I take it away and report it to police.”

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adj. 受影响的,受感动的,受疾病侵袭的 adj. 做
只有两个人知道奥斯卡奖获奖名单,他们负责审计整个流程,这两个人就是PwC公司的税务顾问玛莎?瑞兹和会计师布莱恩?卡利南。
The candidate

[di't?:min]
After her legal travails , anything Kesha released would have a veneer of triumph. But this comeback set was an artistic warrior cry more potent than any might've expected.
美国电影学会选出了十部本年度最佳电影和电视剧。这些影片排名按字母表顺序排列,美国电影学院评审团选出这些影片的标准是促进了活动图像的艺术化、提升了美国艺术形式文化遗产的魅力、对观众和艺术者有所启发、在美国社会上占有一席之地。

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

两国元首同意:中美关系一定要搞好,也一定会搞好

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佳士得把汉斯·梅姆灵(Hans Memling)于15世纪创作的佛兰芒风格圣母与圣子油画从拍卖会上撤掉,以350多万英镑私下出售,所以影响了这次的拍卖总额。该拍卖行的18世纪前绘画大师作品主管亨利·佩蒂弗(Henry Pettifer)说:“拍卖市场非常挑剔。新鲜作品的数量很少。”他指的是私人极少收藏有博物馆级别的作品。
Gurinder Chadha goes colonial with a tale of the 1947 handover and its fallout, when Lord and Lady Mountbatten lived in a mansion also containing 500 Hindu, Muslim and Sikh servants. Hugh Bonneville and Gillian Anderson are our central couple.

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

“但我让他在碰巧看了一眼报纸时,看到上面一篇文章提醒他吸烟会致癌。
她表示:“美国宪法第一修正案中对于言论自由的保护仅针对公共实体的违法情况,而哈佛是所私立大学,所以第一修正案根本不适用。”
上世纪70年代,考林斯出生在落后的、种族隔离时期的南非。她的童年经历让她更关注通过民间的努力改善贫困女性的生活。创办Wonderbag的灵感源自她观察祖母借助垫子做饭的经历。Wonderbag使用保暖技术在8至12个小时内烹饪食物,无需额外增加燃料。考林斯亲眼见证了非洲女性使用Wonderbag所带来的好处——它减少了她们收集柴火的时间。每卖出一个Wonderbag,这家公司就会向非洲的家庭捐赠一个这样的袋子。过去四年,Wonderbag已经走进600,000个非洲家庭。考林斯还通过亚马逊(Amazon)在美国推出了Wonderbag,并希望到2014年的时候能够通过其他零售商出售自己的产品。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • n. 紧张,拉紧,血统
  • 外卖员能否自由进小区?可实现身份核验但效果待考
  • 在佛罗里达州博卡拉顿林恩大学的辩论,在外交政策和安全上奥巴马有一个固有的优势。作为总统,能接触到情报分析员、外交官和将军的每日简报,他能更好的概括,好像在上半场的辩论中他支配着罗姆尼。
  • 北京2018年居民人均可支配收入超6.2万元
  • 发改委副主任宁吉喆:将研究推出居民增收三年行动方案
  • 《琅琊榜》
    3. Feng Shui

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 顺德区人才专卖房正式启动选房 将有新“房主”, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

广东质监局将抽检智能洁具产品

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

本周国常会:确定进一步支持返乡下乡创业的措施

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 懂得处人准没错
    No, this doesn't mean you should abandon your LinkedIn profile for fear of a suspicious boss. But it does mean you should be more careful. For one, turn off your activity broadcasts so that every savvy move you make isn't announced to your entire network. Here's how: From the homepage, hover over your photo in the top right corner, and click on "Privacy & Settings." From this page, click "Turn on/off your activity broadcasts."
  • 此外,该报告还指出,雨果博斯、雪佛兰和舒洁则跌出了该榜单。
    We will make our skies blue again.
    A total of 2.81 million people who graduated in 2017, 2015 and 2013 from hundreds of Chinese universities were involved in the survey.
    Gisele, 37, came in second place, having earned $17.5 million, marking the first year she has not headed up the line-up since 2002.
    这样的要求不可谓不苛刻。现在,有上千个供应链岗位正虚位以待。如果你希望谋求此类职位,可行之策是先接受物流培训。目前有许多学院和大学都提供此类培训,其中有些是在线课程,如美国宾州州立大学(Penn State)就提供在线供应链管理研究生培训,并颁发证书。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 有“王牌”才够味 木门企业将上演精彩2016大戏
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 建材家居市场“银十”不旺 BHI掉头回落

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

1. Smart mattress
'The market for colored diamonds is really, really high, because they are so rare,' he said.
当我表示自己对一门很难的课程十分害怕时,我的指导老师问我:“那你还想不想接受教育呢?”
在周二发布的一份研究报告中,行业组织国际金融协会(Institute of International Finance)经济学家罗宾?克普克(Robin Koepke)表示,投资者、新兴市场政策制定者以及美联储自身都忽视了美国利率在引发新兴国家汇率、银行及债务危机方面的作用。
"We're excited to have these talented artists showcase the powerful contribution music makes to filmmaking," the show's producers Michael De Luca and Jennifer Todd announced in a statement on Friday. "It's a privilege to welcome them to the 90th Oscars stage."
9. 《大空头》(The Big Short)。亚当·麦凯(Adam McKay)把影片处理为喜剧,但在他以笑声轰炸屏幕的同时,也表明他对这场2008年经济崩溃的呈现是一场让人心碎的美国悲剧。
But only 14,000 tourists took advantage of the visa-free stopover, according to the Beijing General Station of Exit and Entry Frontier Inspection, well short of the 20,000 target officials had previously predicted.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 《财富》美国500强公司美国电话电报公司(AT&T))也于3月份批准了回购至多3亿股股票的计划,价值约105亿美元。这项回购计划是它过去三年中宣布的第四项回购计划。这家公司自从2012年开始股票回购至今,总计已经回购了7.75亿股的股票。
  • 2015卫浴行业大事件盘点 上市倒闭成主角
  • 一项关于“双十一”(光棍节)购物狂欢的评估报告近日在北京发布,在此报告中,提供了对中国最大的年度在线购物活动的独特见解。
    com共同,promise发誓:停战妥协就是两个国家共同发誓不打仗的产物。
  • 2015年1-6月广东木质家具产量达2405.12万件
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • "The scenes in the TV adaptation are beautiful, and also consistent with the original work," a Douban user Banchengyansha said.
    But retail sales growth softened to 10 per cent in October, betraying economists’ expectations it would hold steady at 10.7 per cent growth from September.
  • [p?'lu:n]
    不过,人们并没有对周二的峰会寄予过高期望,因为没有任何迹象表明,各国能在政治上实现突破,进而采取更有力的举措。科学家表示,要想如愿把全球变暖控制在各国五年前一致同意的上限,那么未来几年里,就必须扭转排放量上升的势头。现有的所有方案,与实现这一目标都相距甚远。
  • Some hits have gone so far over the top they should be winded, yet instead keep on puffing gusts of hot air, including “Downton Abbey,” “Scandal” and “Revenge.” A new addition on ABC, “How to Get Away With Murder” was a fun substitute, a lurid nighttime soap opera about lawbreaking defense lawyers — “Law & Disorder.”
    横跨全美的大日食
  • 2016年的欧洲杯足球赛,俄罗斯与英国球迷因其粗鲁及流氓行为一直占据新闻头条。
    公司一直都在寻求省钱的办法,将一些自由职业者能胜任的工作外包出去。虚拟助理可以做许多全职员工可以做的工作,但是忠诚度却比较低。这些员工可以帮助拓展商业渠道,或者促进事情更加顺利进行。
    从2004年起,过去120年里的现代或当代艺术家们创作的10件作品在拍卖会上共卖出1亿多美元。而更早期绘画大师的作品价格则是稳中有跌。最近几周,这一趋势非常明显,伦敦的拍卖公司努力为自己的最新一批18世纪前绘画大师作品寻找买家。与近些年的情况一样,其中几乎没有名作。
  • To be brief, people with type C personalities are perfectionists, consistent and will never break the rules. Unlike their "sister" type A; type C personalities tend to take their time with the details and often check and recheck their work for accuracy. They tend to be deep thinkers and like to know every detail in regards to their work and life.
    在如今的江苏省境内的贵族古墓里找到的。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 发放变相“现金贷” 上百“回租贷”平台锁定大学生 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

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Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

70城房价涨幅连续10个月收窄

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

首幅大湾区标准地图亮相

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

京住宅成交创新高 供需不平衡恐加速房价上行

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

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  • 新的计划生育政策将会一定程度地刺激生育率。2014年将会有2百万新生儿童。这意味着1年就产生了15%的增长,这将会在未来进一步增强消费者信心。
  • 1月信贷预测2.45万亿 基建接棒住房贷款

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

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  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 汽车销量:2015年,汽车销量将达到1700万辆,但随着皮卡和SUV的走俏,各大厂商也会纷纷调整产能。低油价的压力将导致小型车的利润更加单薄。
    Six regions recorded GDP growth less than 7 percent, with China's north-eastern rust belt Liaoning province at the bottom with negative growth.
    三月四日在好莱坞高地中心Mary J. Blige, Miguel, Gael García Bernal, Andra Day, Natalia LaFourcade, Keala Settle, Sufjan Stevens and Common将会演唱自己的原创歌曲来庆贺第90届奥斯卡。
  • 从技术上来说,这是东盟(ASEAN)十个成员国将本地区所有贸易协议纳入一个整体框架的计划。它也没有TPP在许多方面的雄心。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 肺的一项意外功能被发现了。研究人员发现肺不仅仅能促进呼吸作用,在造血方面也起关键作用,肺每小时能制造1000多万血小板(微小的血细胞),这相当于任何特定时刻循环中的血小板的大多数。
  • 扶贫搬迁安置点地基塌陷,问责!
  • The fruit is placed into the mold when it's young and undeveloped.

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 住宅建设用地使用权期满咋办?民法典物权编草案:自动续期
  • Household substance abuse
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  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

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  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 八月全国建材家居景气指数攀升
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 中指院:上半年主要城市楼市去化水平不及去年同期
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

Enrollment: 424

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

May its blessings lead into a wonderful year for you and all whom you hold dear.祝福你及你所爱的人新的一年中万事如意。
Face-value prices for the Brazil versus Chile match officially ranged from $200 to $25 for Brazilians, the cheapest tickets making up roughly 5 percent of those sold. They were only available for students, senior citizens or poor people who participate in a government welfare program.
Two-thirds of this year’s deals are trading above their issue price. On average, 2017’s class of US IPOs have risen in value by about double the S&P 500, at 20 per cent, according to Renaissance Capital, which runs IPO-focused exchange traded funds.
Lawyers are inherently cautious but most have realised that technology is crucial to crunching through the vast amount of information they handle. Without it, certain document heavy processes, such as disclosure and compliance, would be nearly impossible.
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Cousins's deal qualifies as a blockbuster, the Raptors made two strong moves to bolster their contender status, and the race for the West's last playoff spot got far more intriguing, among other storylines.
Online sales contributed 82.6 percent of sales. Online sales have prompted traditional stores, including 13 of Beijing's 77 "time-honored brands" from snack stores to shoes sellers, to move their goods online.
此外,去年共计新增银幕8035块,相当于每一天,都有22块银幕投入使用。现在全国共有大约31627块银幕。
pre前,de,cess走,or人:在前面走的人-前辈
Facebook, up 44 per cent, has added new features including disaster alert, which lets users quickly inform family and friends that they are safe. Such innovations add to the media group’s importance as an integral medium for worldwide connection and enhance its value to advertisers, Ms Cheung says.

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

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Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 清华大学和北京大学分别排在第14位和第17位,与它们去年各自的排名相同。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

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  • 不是每个乐队都能在四十年的职业生涯中始终给人以清新的感觉,然而并非每个乐队都是金发女郎。
  • 强化对“大棚房”整治工作监督 青海约谈履责不力党员干部
  • 《国土安全》(Homeland):第三季末布洛迪(Brody,戴米恩·路易斯[Damian Lewis]饰)最终被杀后,映时频道(Showtime)的这部间谍惊悚剧似乎走到了尽头。目前看来,第四季没了他却变得充满活力,令人喜爱。卡莉(Carrie,克莱尔·丹尼斯[Claire Danes]饰)这次的对手是美貌、狡猾的巴基斯坦情报官塔斯尼姆(Tasneem,尼姆拉特·考尔[Nimrat Kaur]饰)。

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 各地税务机关积极开展便民办税春风行动—— 创新举措促减税降费落地显效
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Anti-dumping cases were much easier to bring in the US than in the EU where companies first had to pass a public interest test.
  • Chazelle’s musical was the hot favourite going into the evening, with a record-tying 14 nominations. Chazelle won the best director award, while Emma Stone won best actress for her performance in the film, which was produced by Lionsgate. There were other La La Land Oscars for score and best original song.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

人造板甲醛释放量新标提高 将于2018年五一起实施

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