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针对棚改贷款“一刀切”传闻 专家:棚改货币化安置需兴利除弊

Editorials

Covid-19: breaking the chain of household transmission

BMJ 2020; 370 doi: 社科院澄清:“明年房价断崖式下跌”是误读 (Published 14 August 2020) Cite this as: BMJ 2020;370:m3181

Read our latest coverage of the coronavirus outbreak

  1. Shamil Haroon, clinical lecturer in primary care1,
  2. Joht Singh Chandan, academic clinical fellow in public health12,
  3. John Middleton, president3,
  4. Kar Keung Cheng, professor of public health and primary care1
  1. 1Institute of Applied Health Research, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
  2. 2Warwick Medical School, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK
  3. 3Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER)
  1. Correspondence to: S Haroon s.haroon{at}bham.ac.uk

“大七环”月底将封口 通州至大兴或可通车

The UK is one of the countries most severely affected by covid-19. Recent outbreaks in English towns such as Oldham, probably involving transmission within large multigenerational households, show the importance of getting the right public health measures in place now to prevent more widespread surges in infections.1

Current test and trace policies have mainly focused on preventing spread in care homes, hospitals, and in the community.2 However, contact within households is thought to be responsible for roughly 70% of SARS-CoV-2 transmission when widespread community control measures are in place.3 In Wuhan, the reproduction number (R) dropped from 3.54 to 1.18 after lockdown and cordon sanitaire. But the epidemic was only brought under complete control when Fangcang (field) hospitals were introduced to isolate cases outside the home, with R dropping to 0.51 after two weeks.4

Current UK guidance advises household contacts to isolate within the same home as the index case for 14 days.5 They make up the majority of contacts for infected individuals and are likely to remain exposed to the infected household member during this period of isolation.6 Despite guidance advising household members to socially distance, contacts are likely to interact repeatedly—during mealtimes, for example—and to share facilities such as bathrooms.

We know that transmission is more likely to occur indoors than outdoors.7 The cumulative risk to household contacts from an infected person is likely to be substantial during peak viral shedding. In one study in New York State, 38% of household contacts tested positive for SARS-Cov-2, and similar secondary infection rates have been reported in China.89 Transmission may be even higher among household contacts of essential workers, who are at greater risk of being infected than the general population.10

Household members who are older, have underlying medical conditions, or share a bed or vehicle with the index case are the most susceptible.91112 Children seem to be at lower risk of being infected.13 However, their stool samples and nasopharyngeal swabs can remain positive for SARS-CoV-2 for more than two weeks after symptom resolution,14 although their role in transmission remains to be established.

Governments should consider new public health measures to prevent household transmission as we prepare for a potential second wave. Household quarantine is likely to remain an important pandemic control measure, and government support for people quarantined at home is conspicuously absent in the UK: this position has been challenged by independent experts.15

Effective isolation

Effective isolation of index cases from household members could reduce secondary infections.12 Wearing masks within quarantined households may help, particularly if used by the index case as soon as infection is suspected.16 The World Health Organization recommends that infected people and unavoidable close contacts, particularly those in vulnerable groups, should wear medical masks, but Public Health England does not currently recommend this. Other measures that should be considered (and evaluated) include clear advice on enhanced personal hygiene; cleaning and disinfecting shared toilets and other common spaces, door handles, and touch points; and staggering mealtimes.

People who are unable to self-isolate safely at home could be accommodated in special isolation facilities such as hotels and hostels, an approach adopted by some other countries, including Italy, Finland, and Lithuania.17 In China, field hospitals were created to manage and strictly isolate patients with mild-to-moderate covid-19.18 Nightingale hospitals in the UK could be similarly repurposed to support isolation of infected people with mild-to-moderate disease. As medical and nursing care needs are mostly modest, the cost would be relatively low. However, such a system depends on access to rapid testing for anyone with symptoms or possible exposure so that infection can be confirmed and isolation started before transmission occurs. It would also require public trust that isolation in these facilities would be voluntary, safe, and supportive.

美国银行集团
中国政策制定者的任何开始减持国内巨额储备的决定,都将对市场产生巨大影响。
In this ranking of 90 European business schools, Insead in France leads the field for full-time and EMBA programmes, while the University of St Gallen in Switzerland is top for MiM. Iese of Spain and IMD of Switzerland were ranked number one for customised and open-enrolment executive education programmes respectively.
2005年,戴维森发现自己总是得跟在一岁大的儿子杰克后面,收拾他随处乱扔的儿童吸管杯。于是,她从塔吉特(Target)上买了一台缝纫机,为儿童吸管杯设计出一个类似皮带的奇妙装置——SippiGrip。但她并没有很快实现自己的创业梦想——她加入了微软人力资源团队,与X-Box部门合作。2007年,她在全国性贸易展上推出了SippiGrip。幸运的是,塔吉特邀请她参加2008年父母发明产品计划。目前,戴维森的产品已经在沃尔玛(Walmart)、婴儿反斗城(Babies "R" Us)和亚马逊等零售商开卖。
柯特妮韦弗(Courtney Weaver)
McDonough School of Business at Georgetown University in Washington DC returns to the custom ranking in 15th place after dropping out last year because of a low survey response rate from clients. Only three schools enter the custom ranking for the first time, including London’s Cass Business School in 60th place.
今年的获奖榜单如下:

人社部发言人李忠表示,2016年第一季度。我国的就业形势总体保持稳定。不过他补充说道,经济下滑和结构改革,使就业更困难。
vi. 抱怨,悲叹,控诉
LONDON — In the 1970s, the British comedian Tommy Cooper used to tell a joke about asking an auction house to value a violin and a painting that he had discovered in an attic. The good news, he was told, is that they were made by Stradivarius and Rembrandt. The bad news was that the painting was by Stradivarius and the violin was by Rembrandt.
9. Add Personality
该杂志称,他的净资产为35亿美元,与前一年相比缩水了10亿美元。

Footnotes

  • 国务院扶贫办:聚焦深度贫困地区 特别是“三区三州”
  • After months have passed without a culprit in her daughter's murder case, Mildred Hayesmakes a bold move, painting three signs leading into her town with a controversial message directed at William Willoughby, the town's revered chief of police. When his second-in-command Officer Dixon, an immature mother's boy with a penchant for violence, gets involved, the battle between Mildred and Ebbing's law enforcement is only exacerbated.

The number of moviegoers in 2016 reached 1.37 billion, an increase of nearly 8.9 percent year-on-year.
I am afraid to go out in the sun now because of the holes in the ozone. I am afraid to breathe the air because I don't know what chemicals are in it. 我现在害怕晒太阳,因为臭氧层出现了空洞。我现在害怕呼吸空气,因为我不知道那里有多少化学物质。
第八步 反(假)复(装)练习轨迹记忆法或者罗马房间法
Song “The Spring Blossom” (Na Ying)
不管使用什么样的固有动力方式,所有这些引擎都利用最新的发动机技术,从而使性能和燃料经济最大化,其范围包括从福特嘉年华(Fiesta)的小型、高效1.0升涡轮增压三缸发动机到雪佛兰科尔维特Stingray已经被证明无可替代的巨大6.2升V8引擎。我们在本文的幻灯片里列出了《沃兹汽车》十大最佳引擎。
6. Cutting Down on Saturated Fats Could Preserve Your Memory

“新常态”下衣柜企业转型“三步走”

References

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